In 2015, the first publicity video for The Void, the VR theme park, was released on YouTube and suddenly received millions of hits. Many people were amazed by the shock experience they displayed, and even some readers commented on the Xiaobian report that the experience is willing to pay a month's salary.
The Void is shocking because it creates a world of virtual reality combined with reality. The user is in a large space and sees a virtual game scene in front of him. It feels so real because the game character he sees is another real person. The wind and rain he feels are not only visual. The perception, but also the physical feelings.
So what kind of investment is needed to create such a world? From technology, products, to content and operations, this is a brand new thing.
In this open class, we invited Wang Rui, the CTO of MANAVR, to answer all the questions about this VR theme park.
Wang Rui Array, graduated from Tsinghua University, full stack engineer, is dedicated to exploring the various possibilities of virtual reality and human-computer interaction.
Virtual reality industry practitioner, currently co-founder & CTO of Mystic Valley MANAVR.
In 1997 as an early member to participate in the core development of open source graphics engine OpenSceneGraph, this engine is a world-class VR engine that was used in NASA aviation research. Author of "OpenSceneGraph 3.0 Beginner's Guide" (English) and "OpenSceneGraph.3.Cookbook" (English), as a master class monograph, was selected into the United States Army and Navy Graduate School textbooks. Compile the "OpenGL Programming Guide" of the Hongbao book.
Developed CNC machine tools and Digital Earth, and it is also a well-known network fiction writer.
The following content is organized from public lectures.
1. What is the difference between The Void form VR theme park and general offline experience store?
I think that using one of the simplest terms can explain the difference between The Void and general experience shops, that is, "big." The â€œbigâ€ here is not just the difference in size between space, because now we can see thousands of square meters of VR experience shops everywhere, but it may contain dozens of different display content. The Void emphasized its uniqueness from the very beginning, that is, the consistency of the scene.
The word consistency is a little abstract. For simple explanation, it contains two meanings. First, The Void theme park is a complete and consistent scene in the entire space; Second, The Void is complete and consistent in the environmental experience.
The Void covers an area of â€‹â€‹200 square meters in Salt Lake City's first experience center. It describes the same thing as a whole. The earliest promotional video was an adventure in a spaceship. Then the entire experience hall was a haunted house. They also made it clear in the promotional video.
Many VR experience stores nowadays are putting an egg chair, a tank, and an HTC Vive experience area. Together with a VR suspension bridge, they get a 40-square-meter multiplayer experience space, although the first two months May be a good customer traffic, but sales are not optimistic about the back.
This way of stacking content is not much different from the previous arcade hall. Its charging mode is similar to that of the arcade hall. For example, it charges according to the project, or is a game card. It costs 120 yuan for an hour. But nowadays VR games are far less sticky than previous games, like Street Fighters. And now people's tastes are also very slim. Really open a street tyrant's shop may not make money.
Going back to what I just said, The Void is not only a world view of a consistent game but also a complete and consistent experience of the environment. This constitutes the essential difference between The Void and a variety of large-space multiplayer positioning experience or arcade-style experience. For example, Zero Latency is also a 200-400 flat space and is based on the same worldview. Its reputation is also not Small, but it's actually different from The Void.
For example, the actual space of Zero Latency is completely emptied, there can be no wall, there can be no support column, you can run inside, but in fact do not dare to run. The content of the game, the same way, can not have walls and supporting columns, it may be that you are in an open space, there are zombie out of the trees in all directions. Otherwise, you see a wall, you can't touch it, or go straight through. This is very contrary. I experienced some room escape experience as an obstacle. I went to the wall first to go outside to see if there were ghosts, but this violated the original intention of doing VR games, and it was also encountered by many people who did content. A difficult problem.
The concept proposed by The Void is "environmental interaction", that is to say, the virtual and realistic space environment is unified. You can prop up the bulkhead of the spacecraft in the virtual scene, because in reality there is really a wall. You can also open a door in the virtual space, because there is really a door in the real space (but there is a problem that the former person opens the door, and the latter person needs to have the staff close the door before the next person opens). For example, here is a touch screen. You can really touch a panel when you reach out. In reality, this may be just a piece of wood, but what you see is a touch screen. This constitutes a very good user experience process.
Through the design of these walls, columns, and gates, it is also very easy to guide the user's behavior, rather than being overwhelmed in a solitary scene. Many people play a large number of multi-position positioning experience, can not run up and dare not move, that is, standing and shooting. Because the average person's mode of thinking is like this, you see a big scene with nothing. Subconsciously think that you don't want to tamper with, because there may be hidden dangers around. I think this is a natural reaction to human psychology.
The main and most significant difference between The Void VR theme park and the general VR experience shop is that The Void is "big."
The main experience is that, first, The Void is a complete and consistent scene across the entire space
Second, The Void is complete and consistent in environmental experience
The current large VR experience stores have no difference in the way they pile up content with the previous arcade halls.
2. What are the main technologies needed for VR theme parks?
Still clinging to the core differences that have just been said, the first is that the Void scene world view is the same; the second is its environmental experience virtual space is the same. Based on these two core differences, we will talk about its main technology.
First of all, in order to ensure that the scene is large and uniform, we need accurate enough space positioning technology; in order to ensure a true environmental experience, we need to support the natural interaction process.
These two points also constitute the core technology of The Void type theme parkâ€”spatial positioning and natural interaction.
There are many spatial positioning schemes. The accuracy, cost, difficulty of maintenance, number support, and anti-jamming ability are all different. If you want to go deeper, you will not necessarily finish one week. So here are just a few of the most basic requirements:
1, can support a large enough space and the corresponding positioning accuracy;
2, can support a sufficient number of experience;
3, can adapt to the irregular shape of space;
4, easy to implement and maintain, cost control.
The Void has been using optical capture positioning solutions until now. To be honest, it is difficult to adapt this solution to various real-world scenarios. Understand the optical positioning program should know, in fact, in the ceiling of the scene, to mount the camera on the horizontal frame, the cost is very high, the water is very deep.
What is to be determined by spatial positioning? First, the head, then the hands, and the human hands are the minimum requirements for interaction. If there is an unlimited game, the hand interaction is minimal. Further, the foot tracking is also important. To see yourself walking, crouching and jumping, these are the minimum natural interactions that are needed in The Void experience space.
And in the large space multiplayer game experience, people see your virtual character should be your real action, you jump up, he can see, say hello to him, he can see. Therefore, if the ultimate experience is to include a systemic motion capture system in this system, this is what we are doing.
The Void uses large-space optical positioning. Capture captures the location of your hands and guns in space through optical Mark points. Another option is to track your hands with Leap Motion. We have adopted a different scheme. We identify the personâ€™s position in space by paving the floor. Through motion capture, including inertial capture, the personâ€™s posture is established. It can be said that The Void is in the sky and we are doing it differently. Engage on the ground.
ManaVR Multiplayer Space VR Experience
We control this system called the global sensing system. The goal is to deceive one's own brain and express the process of natural interaction and limb movements in the virtual world. At the same time, there is a real spatial orientation and interaction with the virtual scene.
In addition to the core technologies, there are several technical issues that must be noted. The first is to provide each player with a "high-performance mobile computing device." Simple is a PC backpack, and there is a mobile device that has enough computing power to carry computing requirements. In short, there can be no one line dragged behind. This is an experience. It is not safe.
The second is to ensure low latency network data transmission. Because The Void game emphasizes a multiplayer experience, another player watching you during the interaction process should be smooth and natural, unable to glide or drop frames. This has a high demand for real-time scheduling on the game server side, which is not needed in general online games.
Another important technical concept of The Void is to provide a global interactive experience through external devices, such as near the crater, blowing hot air, or spraying water towards the player. This technique is not magical. There have been a lot of stage projects before. It does not have a clear specification and is completely customized according to the game story. Therefore, it will not be repeated here.
The core technologies are: enough accurate spatial positioning technology and natural interactive solutions
The basic needs also include: First, it can support a large enough space and the corresponding positioning accuracy; Second, it can support a sufficient number of experience; Third, can adapt to the irregular shape of the space; Fourth, It is easy to implement and maintain, and the cost is controllable.
Two technical issues: One is to provide each player with a "high-performance mobile computing device," and the other is to ensure low-latency network data transmission.
3. What are the different technical solutions?
At present, we can see that the technical solutions for building an experience hall or theme park can be roughly divided into the following categories:
First, VIVE games, dynamic seats, and some simple combinations of props and content.
Second, large-space multiplayer game programs, usually only use the spatial positioning of this core technology program, the specific principles include but are not limited to optical positioning (passive Marker), PSMOVE class active optical positioning, UWB positioning, LightHouse class positioning, full The room's two-dimensional code positioning, SLAM (Inside-out) positioning, relying on the mouth [sound] positioning and so on.
The third is the plan of the universal treadmill.
Then there is The Void's own plan, using the self-developed VR head display and backpack system, OptiTrack optical positioning program, focusing on interaction between the virtual and real environment, and a complete game logic flow. In fact, it does not have much hard technology innovation, but there is a fundamental difference between the concept and the first few.
The fourth is the ManaVR parallel universe universal sensing system solution mentioned above.
4. What are the solutions for multiplayer and wireless and what are their advantages and disadvantages?
I understand this problem as two unrelated parts. First, the multiplayer game problem in the space positioning program; Second, the wireless transmission problem of game scene data.
At present, the most popular and stable is the optical positioning of passive Marker points, such as OptiTrack, Vicon, Motion Analysis and so on.
The principle of optical positioning is easy to understand. A sufficient number of cameras are set in the space, and a highly reflective Marker ball is affixed to the human body. The infrared LED array mounted on the camera illuminates the ball and reflects it on the camera screen to form a bright picture. As long as the same Marker can be observed by at least two cameras at the same time, it can measure its position in space.
Obviously, if there is a blind spot in the venue that cannot be seen by two cameras at the same time, the positioning will fail; and the more Marker points the same camera sees, the more likely it is that the positioning will be confused. And for irregularly shaped space, the difficulty and cost of implementation are very high, because each camera is expensive, and the area where dead space may be formed in an irregular site will greatly increase. In the case where the number of people participating in the game is too much or too dense, the problem of inaccurate recognition may also arise.
Another solution is UWB, UWB positioning scheme. Multiple sensor devices are installed in the space, and then the player wears a tag that emits a UWB pulse signal and is received by at least two sensors. The sensor calculates the space of each tag by the time difference of the signal arrival, and the pitch and heading angle of the signal arrival. Absolute position. In theory, it is fast, penetrating, resistant to multipath interference, and supports thousands of tags at the same time.
Most other solutions have similar problems, such as: limited space for support, low positioning accuracy, limited number of supported experiences, 1 person mainly, 2 people are technological innovations, and 4 people have firecrackers; the shape of the supported space Most of them are rectangular and must be completely empty. It is difficult to guide gamers. In addition, implementation issues and operational stability issues will not be repeated.
The second question is the wireless transmission of game scene data. I do not want to go too deep here, because it is more like a specific topic of online game development. But we can choose an interesting point to illustrate, that is, wireless VR helmet solution.
HTC VIVE has just announced the start of pre-sales of their wireless helmets. Based on the TPCAST â€‹â€‹wireless two-way transmission protocol, the delay is expected to be within 30ms. This low-latency wireless image transmission solution is still essentially a WHDMI standard and uses a 60 GHz band signal, so the attenuation of the signal is very fast and it is almost impossible to pass through a wall. And because the picture codec itself may take time, the delay is also difficult to achieve less than 20ms. And WHDMI program for low delay transmission of baseband signals, it is not a narrow channel but a very wide channel, resulting in multi-machine work Interfering with each other is doomed and cannot be played by many people at the same time. And the high frequency attenuation is fast, suitable for families and not suitable for experience hall.
At present, the most popular and stable is the optical positioning of the passive Marker point, but the optical positioning is more likely to have dead corners, the more Maker points, the greater the possibility of positioning confusion
UWB UWB positioning solutions have problems of coexistence and mutual interference
HTC uses a wireless two-way transmission protocol based on TPCAST. The attenuation of the signal is very fast and it is almost impossible to pass through the wall.
5. How to choose or develop special effects, accessories and controllers?
Some equipment can be purchased from Taobao, how to properly place them in the game scene, is the focus of the VR theme park. For example, in the virtual space approaching the window, feel the cold wind blown by the electric fan; or the spaceship in the game lands, provoking dry ice smoke around the player.
In fact, in the combined situation of virtual reality and reality, there will be a lot of needs to collect user interaction signals in the real scene through sensors. Such sensor devices mainly include: displacement sensors, angle sensors, acceleration sensors, pressure sensors, flow sensors, sound sensors, temperature sensors, magnetic sensors, brightness sensors, color sensors, and the like. If we combine the values â€‹â€‹of multiple sensors, make up each other's weaknesses, fill in the blank data and response intervals, and then calculate a more accurate correlation value, we often say that Sensor Fusion, AuraxTM Hern nine-axis inertial sensors and inertial motion The captured core algorithm is also reflected here.
In addition, we can also choose to use Leap Motion as a virtual touch screen, identify playersâ€™ facial or sports trends based on Kinect or CV recognition methods, and use RFID to do proximity object recognition (for example, hold the door handle, Pick up weapons on the table, etc.) These interactive devices and methods are often common tools used by the new media interactive display industry, but when combined with the VR theme, it is enough to rejuvenate the renewal.
Some special effects tools may be easier to purchase on Taobao
How to properly place the equipment in the game scene is the key to consider in VR theme parks
6. How to develop and set the software background and terminal?
The software development of multiplayer VR games is essentially the development of online game software. Therefore, such as the establishment of a message/event system, the sharing of data objects among multiple machines, the processing of delays and data consistency, and the related topics of the architecture of these online game systems are also considered in VR network games. Of course, with excellent game engine support such as Unity and Unreal, we can save a lot of effort to implement these back-end architectures ourselves, but there are still several areas that need attention.
1, game data transmission strategy.
2, how to represent the attitude of other players in the eyes of a client.
3, when the LAN games and exhibition hall layout are often encountered, it is the central control system.
The software development of multiplayer VR games is essentially the development of online game software.
We need to consider: the transmission strategy of game data, how to represent the attitude of other players in the eyes of a client, and the central control system
7. How to obtain content? Can you convert existing consumer-level content to large-space content?
The Void type of game experience can be said to be highly customizable, and it is necessary to fully integrate the virtual scene with the actual environment in order to achieve the best results. Therefore, traditional VIVE or Oculus game content is difficult to directly copy into the large space. However, game modes that can achieve all-natural interactions and environmental interactions also have a great deal of room for third-party developers, rather than being limited by limited interactive means.
Of course, if the large space is a completely empty rectangular field, it is entirely possible to remap the coordinates of the space directly and then replace the interactive handles of VIVE; another possibility is to replace the "teleport" feature of the VIVE game, which really lets The player walks to the desired location, but this has very high demands on the game logic and the design of the space. Only the scene resources can be directly converted.
If you want to complete the game development of The Void type by yourself, be aware of the issues in addition to the changes in the interaction methods mentioned earlier, network data communication, and player attitude. Also consider a special game logic processing, that is, the player's death and Resurrection mechanism.
Traditional VIVE or Oculus game content is difficult to directly copy into large spaces
In addition to changes in the way of interaction, network data communication and problems outside the player's posture, players' death and resurrection mechanisms must also be considered.
8. What issues need to pay attention to the location, engineering, operation, and maintenance of VR theme parks?
First of all, compared with traditional theme parks, VR theme parks have their main advantages in terms of low decoration costs and the rapid replacement of interactive content. Of course, the immersive sense brought by the VR game itself is also one of its main values.
If you choose to combine with traditional theme parks in depth or build VR experience spaces in scenic spots, this profit model that guarantees passenger flow and repurchase rates is predictable, and it avoids the complex problems of self-operating, but it is simply divided into ticket revenues. mode. Another possible model is the combination of specific planning museums and science and technology museums, but this is more to the needs of toB or toG.
The difficulty of installation and maintenance depends directly on the core technology used by the developers themselves.
The difficulty of installation and maintenance depends directly on the core technologies used by developers themselves
Optical positioning requires professionals to participate in site measurement and installation
9. How to formulate cost budget, pricing and promotion strategies?
The cost of renovation of VR theme parks is much simpler than that of traditional parks because it does not require very complicated interiors and soft furnishings, and the style of space is well documented. Therefore, the cost we need to discuss mainly comes from equipment, content development and human resources.
The device is also the hardware product corresponding to all the technical elements mentioned earlier: heads-up, PC backpack, positioning system, natural interaction (such as motion capture) system, stage and interactive facilities, and network equipment of the entire site.
The cost mainly comes from equipment, content development and human resources.
Equipment refers to hardware products that correspond to all technical elements
10. What other application scenarios are available besides VR theme parks?
Military training, industrial simulation, film and television production, high-risk industry training, etc.
Audience Q&A session
Q1: What is the relationship between VR theme parks and traditional theme parks such as Disney now and in the future?
Rui Wang: I went to attend a meeting before. At that time, I was the Vice President of Huayi Brothers and proposed that there are three different combinations of VR and theme parks:
1. VR the traditional theme park, such as a roller coaster to wear a helmet;
2, new VR experience items, such as the new VR room escape experience;
3. A theme park that fully integrates VR concepts.
For example, The Void has an experience hall for the Ghostbusters this year. This museum is primarily a wax museum, so it is a traditional display. In this museum, The Void not only provides a large space VR experience, but also provides a combined experience with traditional exhibition space.
This is actually a trend that is slowly going on. It is the gradual integration of VR and traditional theme parks. The three ways are just mentioned.
The second major trend is that there will be a full VR theme park in the future. It will have its own IP. On the basis of IP, it will show an oversized scene that always wears helmets most of the time, and even thousands of flats. Tens of thousands of flats, in this space so the concept of online games can come in, including the concept of traditional theme parks can also come in.
Q2: How do VR theme parks profit? How about the second-time consumption rate of VR theme park users? How to improve the secondary consumption level? What are the main difficulties for users to save money?
Rui Wang: Actually, the profitability of current VR theme parks and experience halls is not optimistic. It mainly collects the dividends brought about by the freshness experienced by users for the first time, and there is almost no possibility of second consumption. . Including The Void, its secondary consumption ratio will not be very high, because it shows more of a technical strength than a complete sticky game content.
It seems to me that there is a problem that is limited by the characteristics of the two core The Voids that can be expressed while other experience rooms cannot be represented. The first is that the scene is large enough to have a unified world view, and the second is The scene has a very good natural interaction experience.
When the scene is big enough and there is a unified worldview, we can bring in some of the concepts of online games. We can put many people playing, socializing, copying and upgrading in a big enough scene; when you have a natural interaction Experience will not let people quickly remove the equipment, or there is a strong sense of discomfort in the scene. In fact, it is these two characteristics that have not yet been achieved. We will see that the current VR theme park is difficult to attract secondary consumption, and not limited to how to make interesting games in the current interactive mode.
For example, in the 2048 game, many friends are playing, but can this game form a category? I think it can't be. With VR games limited by current interactive methods, is it possible that there will be explosions in the future? I think it is possible, but it will not result in a category. I donâ€™t think so. How to make VR games form a category, this is the ultimate means of making money, rather than relying on one or two explosives, and now there is no explosives.
So we said that if you want to make money in a brand new industry, the most effective way is to bring in the existing experience. So, I always said to bring online games to VR games. Some friends would say that this is a completely new field without a whole new way of thinking, but also use traditional thinking and it is boring. It's really boring, but this is how we think about the most direct way to make money. I just want to think of ways I can bring in the concept of traditional games.
Q3: The VR theme park is really hot, but the content is still a problem. How to create a differentiated experience?
æˆ‘ä»¬ä¸ºä»€ä¹ˆä¸€ç›´åœ¨é—®é¢˜ä¸åå¤å¼ºè°ƒVRè¦æœ‰ä¸€ä¸ªä¸€è‡´æ€§çš„åœºåœ°å’Œä¸–ç•Œè§‚ï¼Œè¦æœ‰ä¸€ä¸ªä¸€è‡´æ€§äº¤äº’å’ŒçŽ¯å¢ƒä½“éªŒã€‚è¿™å…¶å®žå°±æ˜¯è§£æ”¾äº†å†…å®¹å¼€å‘å—åˆ°çš„çº¦æŸï¼Œä½ èƒ½å¤Ÿè®©æ¸¸æˆè€…åœ¨åœºåœ°ä¸è¿åŠ¨èµ·æ¥ï¼Œèƒ½å¤Ÿç”¨ä¸€äº›éšœç¢åŽ»å¼•å¯¼ï¼Œèƒ½å¤Ÿç”¨è‡ªç„¶äº¤äº’æ–¹å¼åŽ»è¿›è¡Œæ¸¸æˆã€‚æˆ‘è§‰å¾—æœ‰è¿™äº›å‰æä¸‹æ‰èƒ½å¤Ÿå°†å†…å®¹å¼€å‘è€…çš„æ€ç»´æ”¾å¼€ï¼ŒViveçš„ç©ºé—´åªæœ‰è¿™ä¹ˆå°ï¼Œåªèƒ½ç”¨ä¸€äº›å¾ˆä¸åè°ƒçš„æ–¹å¼åŽ»å¨±ä¹ã€‚åŒ…æ‹¬çŽ°åœ¨ä¸ºä»€ä¹ˆæ²¡æœ‰ä¸€äº›å¤§åž‹VRæ¸¸æˆçš„è¯žç”Ÿï¼Œå› ä¸ºåœºåœ°å°±è¿™ä¹ˆå¤§ï¼Œå¦‚ä½•ä¿è¯ä¸€ä¸ªä¸¤å°æ—¶çš„ä½“éªŒï¼Œæ˜¯ä¸ªé—®é¢˜ã€‚
æ¯”å¦‚çŽ©ä¸€ä¸ªåƒä¸Šå¤å·è½´ã€ä»™å‰‘å¥‡ä¾ ä¼ è¿™æ ·å¤§åž‹çš„RPGï¼Œå¦‚æžœåœºåœ°æ€»å…±å°±è¿™ä¹ˆå°ï¼Œæ€»æ˜¯çž¬ç§»çš„è¯çŽ©å®¶å¾ˆå®¹æ˜“å°±åŽŒçƒ¦ã€‚æœ‰è¶³å¤Ÿå¤§çš„åœºåœ°ï¼Œæ‰èƒ½æŠŠè¿™ç§æ¦‚å¿µå¸¦å…¥è¿›æ¥ï¼ŒåŒ…æ‹¬ç½‘ç»œæ¸¸æˆçš„æ¦‚å¿µï¼Œå®ƒä»¬é¦–å…ˆä¹Ÿæ˜¯å»ºç«‹åœ¨æœ‰ä¸€ä¸ªè¶³å¤Ÿæ¢å®çš„åœºæ™¯ï¼Œè¶³å¤Ÿæ¢å®çš„ä¸–ç•Œè§‚ï¼Œè¶³å¤Ÿå¤šçš„æ•Œäººå’ŒåŒä¼´ä¸–ç•Œè§‚ã€‚è¦å›Šæ‹¬è¿™ä¸€ç‚¹ï¼Œæˆ‘è§‰å¾—è¿˜æ˜¯è¦å›žåˆ°æˆ‘ä»¬æœ€åˆæåˆ°çš„ï¼ŒVRä¸»é¢˜å…¬å›æœ€å¤§çš„ä¸€ä¸ªç‰¹è‰²å°±æ˜¯å¤§ï¼Œåªæœ‰å¤Ÿå¤§ï¼Œæ‰èƒ½æŠŠè¿™äº›ç‰¹è‰²å¸¦è¿›æ¥ï¼Œå†…å®¹å¼€å‘è€…æ‰æœ‰çš„æ”¾çŸ¢ã€‚åœ¨ç›®å‰çº¦æŸçš„æ¡ä»¶ä¸‹ï¼Œæˆ‘è§‰å¾—å†…å®¹çš„é—®é¢˜è¿˜æ˜¯ç¡¬ä»¶å’Œäº¤äº’çš„é—®é¢˜ï¼Œå†…å®¹ä¸ºçŽ‹å‰æè¿˜æ˜¯ç¡¬ä»¶å’Œäº¤äº’ä½“éªŒè¦åšåˆ°æžè‡´ï¼Œ
çŽ‹é”ï¼šé¦–å…ˆï¼Œå½“æˆ‘ä»¬è¯´æ¯«ç±³çº§ç²¾åº¦æ—¶æ˜¯ä¸¤ä¸ªé—®é¢˜ï¼Œå°±æ˜¯ç©¶ç«Ÿæ˜¯è™šæ‹Ÿç©ºé—´ä¸ä¸ŽçŽ°å®žç©ºé—´ä¸ç²¾åº¦çš„å·®å¼‚ï¼Œè¿˜æ˜¯å½“ä½ é‡å¤èµ°åˆ°ä¸€ä¸ªåœ°æ–¹é‡å¤ç²¾åº¦çš„å·®å¼‚ï¼Œè¿™ä¸ªç²¾åº¦çš„è®¨è®ºæœ‰æ—¶å€™æ˜¯å¾ˆå«ç³Šçš„ï¼Œæ‰€ä»¥æ¯«ç±³çº§çš„è®¨è®ºå¯ä»¥å…ˆæ”¾åˆ°ä¸€è¾¹ï¼Œå› ä¸ºå®šä¹‰éƒ½è¿˜ä¸æ˜¯å¾ˆæ¸…æ¥šã€‚
å½“æˆ‘ä»¬è®²å…¨åŸŸä¼ æ„Ÿã€UWBæˆ–è€…æ˜¯å…‰å¦å®šä½æ–¹æ¡ˆæ—¶ï¼Œæœ¬è´¨çš„é—®é¢˜åœ¨äºŽå½“æˆ‘ä»¬åŽ»è¯†åˆ«ä¸€ä¸ªäººåœ¨ç©ºé—´é‡Œçš„è¿åŠ¨æ—¶ï¼Œéœ€è¦å®ƒåœ¨ç©ºé—´ä¸çš„ä¸€ä¸ªç»å¯¹å‚è€ƒç³»ï¼Œç»å¯¹å‚è€ƒç³»ä¸çš„ä¸€ä¸ªæ ‡è®°ç‚¹ï¼Œè¿™æ˜¯ç©ºé—´å®šä½éœ€æ±‚ä¸€ä¸ªæœ¬è´¨çš„æ ¸å¿ƒæ‰€åœ¨ã€‚æˆ‘ä»¬è¯´æƒ¯æ€§ä¼ æ„Ÿå™¨åšç©ºé—´è¿åŠ¨ä¸å‡†ç¡®ï¼Œå› ä¸ºå®ƒåªèƒ½ä¿è¯è§’åº¦çš„å‡†ç¡®æ€§ï¼Œä½ç§»åªèƒ½é€šè¿‡é€Ÿåº¦åŽ»æŽ¨ç®—çš„è¯ï¼Œä¼šå˜åœ¨è¯¯å·®ï¼Œè€Œè¿™ä¸ªè¯¯å·®æ²¡æœ‰ç»å¯¹ä½ç½®åŽ»çº æ£çš„è¯ï¼Œå°±ä¼šè¶Šæ¥è¶Šåï¼Œè¶Šæ¥è¶Šæ¼‚ã€‚
ç”¨å…‰å¦çš„æ–¹æ¡ˆåŽ»é¿å…é›¶æ¼‚ç§»ï¼Œä¹Ÿå°±æ˜¯æ¯èµ°ä¸€æ¥è¾“å…¥çš„è¯¯å·®éƒ½ä¼šè¢«ç»å¯¹å‚è€ƒç³»åŽ»çº æ£ï¼Œè¿™ä¸ªç»å¯¹å‚è€ƒç³»çš„å‚è€ƒç‚¹æ¥è‡ªæ‘„åƒå¤´å®šä½ã€‚å½“æˆ‘ä»¬è¯´ç”¨å…¨åŸŸä¼ æ„Ÿæ—¶ï¼ŒåŒç†ï¼Œåœ°æ¿ä¸Šçš„æ¯ä¸€ä¸ªç‚¹å°±æ˜¯ç»å¯¹å‚è€ƒç³»ä¸‹ä¸€ä¸ªè¶³å¤Ÿç²¾ç¡®çš„ç‚¹ï¼Œå½“æˆ‘ä»¬è¸©åœ¨åœ°ä¸‹æ—¶åŒæ ·å¯ä»¥ç”¨è¿™ä¸ªç‚¹åŽ»çº æ£æ¼‚ç§»ï¼Œå¾—åˆ°éžå¸¸ç²¾ç¡®çš„å®šä½ã€‚è€Œä¸”é‡å¤çš„ç²¾åº¦æ˜¯éžå¸¸é«˜çš„ï¼Œç”šè‡³å¯ä»¥è¯´æ˜¯è¶‹è¿‘äºŽé›¶çš„ã€‚
ä½†æ˜¯æ£å› ä¸ºæœ‰è¿™ç§å£å·åšå¼•å¯¼ï¼ŒçŽ°åœ¨å¾ˆå¤šäººçœ‹VRä¼šæŒç¨å¾®æ‚²è§‚çš„æ€åº¦â€”â€”ä¸æ˜¯ç¡¬ä»¶éƒ½å…·å¤‡äº†å—ï¼Œæ€Žä¹ˆè¿˜æ²¡è§åˆ°æ€æ‰‹çº§çš„å†…å®¹ï¼Œæ˜¯ä¸æ˜¯è¿™ä¸ªè¡Œä¸šæ ¹æœ¬ä¸é è°±ï¼ŒVRå……å…¶é‡å°±æ˜¯ä¸ªæŠ•å½±æœºï¼Œè¿™ç§æƒ…å†µä¸‹ä»Žäº‹è¿™è¡Œä¸šæ˜¯ä¸æ˜¯ä¸ªé”™ã€‚è¿™æ˜¯å¾ˆå¤šäººæœ‰çš„ä¸€ä¸ªæ‚²è§‚çš„è§‚ç‚¹ï¼Œåœ¨æˆ‘çœ‹æ¥å…¶å®žæ°æ°æ˜¯å®ƒçš„å‰ææ˜¯æœ‰é—®é¢˜çš„ï¼ŒçŽ°åœ¨è¿˜æ²¡æœ‰åˆ°ä¸€ä¸ªä¸‡äº‹ä¿±å¤‡å†…å®¹ä¸ºçŽ‹çš„æ—¶å€™ã€‚
çŽ°åœ¨å¾ˆå¤šæ¸¸æˆå’Œè§†é¢‘å†…å®¹å¼€å‘è€…é‡åˆ°å¾ˆå¤šé—®é¢˜ï¼Œæ£æ˜¯å› ä¸ºæ•´ä¸ªé’ˆå¯¹VRäº¤äº’çš„ä½“ç³»è¿˜æ²¡æœ‰å¥å…¨ï¼Œç›¸å…³çš„æ ‡å‡†è¿˜æ²¡æœ‰å»ºç«‹ï¼Œæˆ‘è§‰å¾—çŽ°åœ¨è°ˆå†…å®¹å¯ä»¥ï¼Œä½†è¦è¯´çˆ†å‘ï¼Œè¿˜å°šæ—©ã€‚
A Water Turbine is a rotary machine that converts kinetic energy and potential energy of water into mechanical work.
Water turbines were developed in the 19th century and were widely used for industrial power prior to electrical grids. Now they are mostly used for electric power generation. Water turbines are mostly found in dams to generate electric power from water potential energy.
The migration from water wheels to modern turbines took about one hundred years. Development occurred during the Industrial revolution, using scientific principles and methods. They also made extensive use of new materials and manufacturing methods developed at the time.
Hydropower Products,Water Turbine Type,Hydroelectric Water Turbine,Water Turbine Hydro Generator
Shenyang Zhicheng Heavy Machinery Manufacturing Co., Ltd. , https://www.zhichengmachinery.com