The blue LED was invented and mass produced in this way.

A semiconductor that emits blue light after power-on will become the ultimate illumination. Akasaka, professor of the famous city of Japan, Professor Nagasaki, professor of Nagoya University, and blue light-emitting diode (LED) developed by Professor Nakamura Shuji of the University of California, USA, opened the "new world of light" that subverted the previous concept and created New industries such as lighting and displays that are energy efficient and long lasting.

"The sparkling light is blue! The hands are shaking with excitement." Akasaki said this when reviewing the experimental scene of the first LED flashing about 25 years ago.

At the time, the LEDs were already red and green. Although it was quickly put into practical use, in the three primary colors of white light that can only be realized by all three, blue is not possible. Researchers around the world are racing to develop.

At that time, as a substance capable of emitting blue light, researchers were concerned about three types of gallium nitride, tantalum carbide, and zinc selenide. Among them, the gallium nitride texture of the blue LED has been extremely hard, and the melting point temperature is 2500 degrees Celsius or more, which is difficult to process. In order to obtain a true blue LED, it is necessary to produce high-quality semiconductor crystals, which was very difficult at the technical level, and was even considered to be "unable to complete development in the 20th century." Gallium nitride was once thought to have no future, and researchers around the world stopped research.

In contrast, Akasaki, who worked at Matsushita Electric Industrial (now Panasonic), was opposed by the surrounding, but still insisted that the difficulty of processing GaN implied the possibility of realizing blue LED and insisted on promoting development. . Later, Akasaki resigned from the company and served as a professor at Nagoya University. Together with Amano, who had previously taught at the university, he challenged the manufacture of pure crystal.

The study of "GaN-based blue LEDs" was published at the International Society, but the response was not enthusiastic. Despite this, I still live in the lab and continue to experiment. In order to make pure crystals, I came up with a method of spraying low-temperature aluminum and then spraying GaN on it, but experienced many failures because I did not find the best conditions.

One day, the heating attitude of the electric furnace was occasionally a little bad, and it was tried to use it in a state where the temperature was not raised, and as a result, an excellent quality crystal was accidentally formed. Through continuous search for the best conditions, in 1985 began to have the ability to stably produce pure crystals.

After 4 years, magnesium was added, and for the first time in the world, gallium nitride crystals, which are indispensable for LEDs, were produced. This is the result of the effort of Akasaki and the excellent ability of Amano to test.

On the other hand, it is Nakamura that opens the way for mass production of GaN-based blue LEDs.

In the context of making high-quality crystals very difficult, Nakamura found the “Tsufuro MOCVD method” based on other crystallization devices seen in the society, which made mass production of pure crystals possible. The results were released in 1991. A gas which does not undergo a chemical reaction is injected from above, but pressure is applied to fix the raw material gas flowing in the lateral direction to the substrate, and finally, crystals having few defects are successfully produced. With the establishment of mass production technology, the road to industrial application has expanded.

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